Table 3. Contra-indications for usage of dental contraceptives in Down syndrome.

Table 3. Contra-indications for usage of dental contraceptives in Down syndrome.

Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) and Norplant (levonorgestrel implant) are often used depot kinds of contraception. In a single research, 50% of females receiving Depo-Provera had been amenorrheic; this treatment may significantly simplify hygiene that is menstrualLaros, 1993). One year of quarterly Depo-Provera injections costs approximately $200 (Laros, 1993). Norplant is just a progestin-impregnated silastic implant this is certainly frequently placed into top supply subcutaneous muscle. It is almost always effective for 5 years but might be eliminated sooner (Laros, 1993). Reports of problems removal that is requiring including irregular genital bleeding – have actually dampened a few of the initial enthusiasm for Norplant. Expense is believed between $300-$400 a(Laros, 1993) year.

Surgical contraceptive procedures consist of laparoscopic tubal ligation and total hysterectomy that is abdominal. Both procedures require informed permission and involvement associated with client and parent. A reference that is helpful sterilization problems seems when you look at the 1988 book because of the United states Academy of Obstetrics and Gynecology on Ethics. The entire process of receiving a sterilization procedure could be emotionally draining and financially problematic for moms and dads (Van Dyke et al, 1995).

Std. Consistent and use that is correct of practices like condoms might be maybe maybe maybe not practical into the Down problem populace (Elkins, l990).

It is critical to keep in mind that the condom may be the only method that is contraceptive which also helps in avoiding the transmission of condition. Those with Down problem could be at increased risk for std (STD). Transmission dangers for many STDs are outlined in Table 4. A 50-90% transmission chance of gonorrhea happens to be documented (rock, 1994). While no reports estimate the incidence of HIV disease in Down problem, HIV happens to be reported into the mentally disabled populace (Kastner et al, 1989). Demonstrably, other intimately transmitted conditions including syphilis, chlamydia, herpes simplex, venereal warts, and hepatitis B are prospective issues into the intimately active individual. In a study that is national Marchetti et al (1990), an overall total of 45 developmentally disabled individuals in 11 states had been informed they have HIV illness (Marchetti et al, 1990). Danger facets associated with HIV illness in Down syndrome are the same as those into the population that is general consist of heterosexual task, homosexual task, IV substance abuse, and contaminated blood transfusions (Simonds and Rogers, 1992).

Dining Table 4. STD transmission danger per coital episode.


Considerably weakened fertility of both sexes is clear when you look at the Down problem populace (Rogers and Coleman, 1992). While men have actually very long been thought to be sterile, Sheridan states one instance of the cytogenetically normal male baby that ended up being fathered by a person with Down syndrome (Sheridan et al, 1980). Females have actually reduced but fertility that is still significant a number of reviews document ladies with Down problem holding pregnancy to term and delivering babies with and without Down problem (Bovicelli et al, 1982; Rani et al, 1990). Babies created to moms with Down problem have reached increased risk for early low and delivery birth fat (Bovicelli et al, 1982). Pregnancy outcomes obtained from the research of mothers with Down problem are presented in dining dining Table 5. Whether a lady with Down problem constitutes a top danger maternity depends mostly on intellectual degree and status that is medical. Demonstrably, the clear presence of maternal cardiac, thyroid, or disease that is hepatic also seizure condition, complicates a maternity. The high incidence of congenital cardiovascular disease in every offspring with Down syndrome plays a part in pregnancy danger, including stillbirth and neonatal death (Gordon, 1990). Offspring without Down problem have actually a higher than normal number of congenital anomalies (Bovicelli et al 1982) (see Table 5).

Dining Table 5. Reported link between maternity in Down syndrome


Just information that is scant available in the parenting abilities of individuals with Down problem (Van Dyke et al, 1995). The matter of parenting by way of an individual that is mentally disabled a controversial one. Some experts keep that kids of mildly retarded partners are probably no worse off than kiddies of people that are “classified as culturally deprived” (Nigro, 1975). Other writers opine that mentally parents that are disabled be much more expected to neglect kids through functions of omission but that purposeful punishment might be infrequent, particularly in the environment of sufficient societal and household aids (Tymchuk, 1992).


In conclusion, sex can be an aspect that is intrinsic of development. Those with Down syndrome need individualized instruction and training to produce appropriate behaviors that are sociosexual.

While those with Down problem have actually unique and often complex medical requirements, they nevertheless require routine health that is reproductive suitable for the overall populace including urological take care of males, gynecological look after ladies, and preventive medical solutions. Training and guidance to stop unplanned pregnancy, punishment, and std should really be an element of the routine health care bills and training for people with Down problem. All people with Down syndrome have actually the best to develop and show sex in a emotionally satisfying and socially appropriate way. This is the duty of care providers to facilitate interaction, research, and help services to do this objective.

Table 3. Contra-indications for usage of dental contraceptives in Down syndrome.

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